jueves, 26 de febrero de 2009

Complexity, Emergence and Self-Organized

  • ACADIA 2008 Session Oct. 17th (HTML)

Complejidad :: Complexity

To illustrate urban complexity, we will examine the structure of cities in their nonfractal states, even if they are hypothetical and do not exist in reality, as this enables us to demostrate properties of their fractal organization. (Batty, 2005:478)

Complejidad organizada, macroconducta particular con forma específica y con patrón identificable en el tiempo. (Johnson, 2003:48)



  • Batty, Michael (2005) Cities and Complexity. Understanding Cities with Cellular Automata, Agent-Based Models, and Fractals. Cambridge: MIT Press. Look Inside :: Buy
  • Heylighen, Francis (1989) Self-Organization, Emergence and the Architecture of Complexity. In Proceedings of the European Congress on System Science. Paris: AFCET . PDF
  • Holland, John (1995) Hidden Order: How Adaptation Builds Complexity. New York: Perseus Book. Look Inside :: Buy
  • Rapoport, Amos y Kantor, Robert (1969) Complexity and Ambiguity in Environmental Design. En Journal of the American Planning Association, 33, 4. March, pp. 210-221.
  • Rapoport, Amos y Hawkes, Ron (1970) The Perception Of Urban Complexity. En Journal of the American Planning Association, 36, 2. March, pp. 106-111.

Sistemas emergentes :: Emergence


  • Emergencia :: Emergence :: 創発 Wikipedia
  • When the whole is greater than the sum of the parts, we call that phenomenon emergence. (Morowitz, 2002). The behavior of the whole is much more complex than the behavior of the parts (Holland, 1998: 2).
  • Los sistemas complejos son descritos en términos de interacciones de sistemas simples (...) para entender el todo se analiza un proceso en sus partes y se estudia en isolación. (Holland, 1998:13)
  • La emergencia no involucra la actividad, sino la interacción. (Holland, 1998:14)

Fenomeno :: Emergent Phenomena (Holland, 1998:2-3)

  • Ethical systems, evolution of nations, spread of ideas come to mind, ant colonies, network of neurons, the inmune system, the internet, global economy.


  • Holland, John (1998) Emergence. From Chaos to Order. New York: Perseus Book. Review :: Look Inside :: Buy
  • Johnson, Steven (2001) Emergence. The connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities and Software. Review :: Look Inside :: Buy
  • Johnson, Steven (2003) Sistemas emergentes. O que tienen en común hormigas, neuronas, ciudades y software. México DF.: Fondo de Cultura Económica. Introducción
  • Johnson, Steven (2003-2009) http://www.stevenberlinjohnson.com/
  • Morowitz, Harold J. (2002) The Emergence of everything: How the world became complex. New York: Oxford University Press. Review :: Look Inside :: Buy
  • Weinstock, Michael (2009) The Architecture of Emergence: The Evolution of Form in Nature and Civilisation. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470066331 Buy

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Auto Organización :: Self organization

The theory of self-organized criticality developed largely by Bak (1996) is based on the notion that systems evolve, usually through growth, to a highly organized state that is critical. (Batty, 2005:478)



  • Bak, Per (1996) How nature works: The science of self-organized critically. New York: Springer-Verlag. Review :: Look Inside :: Buy
  • Heylighen, Francis (2008), Complexity and Self-Organization, in Bates, Marcia J.; Maack, Mary Niles, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences, CRC, ISBN 9780849397127 .
  • Kauffman, Stuart (1993) The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. Look inside :: buy
  • Kauffman, Stuart (1995) At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. New York: Oxford University Press. Look Inside :: buy